Hitherto, it has been widely believed that the bedrock of politics is simply the ability of contending political parties to come up with an ideology,which will inflict a paradigm shift on the existing nation. This presumptions has however not been distinct from Nigeria.
Nigeria before and after independence experienced uprisings of different political parties,that vehemently believe in the power of political ideology. Eg Action group of 1951. A western political party with the political ideology of educational empowerment, thereby creating scholarship schemes for the people of Nigeria. NPC of 1959 chose not to be left out with the ideology activism. They advocated for political dominance in the north. Other contending political parties then centered their political struggle on ideology. But beyond these ideologies there have been factors propelling political participation which we will elucidate in subsequent paragraphs,breaking the nuts one after the other without expurgation.
It is however pertinent to take a glossary glance at what ideology is.
Ideology is simply that doctrine,philosophy, body of beliefs or principles belonging to an individual or group. It is also seen as the study of the historical origin of ideas.
Overtime there had been ideologies propounded by great thinkers which hitherto had stood the test of time,and still calls the shot in modern political, socio-economic and economic system. Some of these ideologies include Marxism by Karl Marx. A great German philosopher (1818-1883) who hold’s view on technical change, exploitation, class struggle and belief formation,this views retains importance beyond the value they may have as instances of the Marxist method, if there is one……even today not all of his insights have been exhausted.
Great political and strategic thinker as Nicholo Machiavelli should not be displaced in the echelon of ideology propounders. Nicholo Machiavelli the propounder of “Machiavellism”. An ideology which symbolizes villainism in principle. A sanction of the use of deception,cruelty, force,violence and the like for achieving the desired political ends. There are other philosophical ideas that exist, some even conflict and antagonise others. But in order to the right consequence on the discus we shall evaluate the essence of the discuss.
POLITICAL PARTY AND PRESSURE
It would be pertinent to note the meaning of these duo concepts to understand the topic better.
Political party is a group of people with like minds with a sole motive of acquiring,consolidating and controlling political power.
While pressure group or you can call it special group in the other hand is a group of people with like minds. With the motive of influencing political policies to the interest of its members.
NB: while political parties struggle for power acquisition. Pressure group struggle to influence the government policies.
MOTIVATIONS OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND PRESSURE GROUPS BEYOND IDEOLOGY.
After much basic research,statistical gathering and intellectual instinct tasking, I came to observe five major motivating factors of political participation beyond ideology. They include.
* Ethnicity interest
* Resentment for mismanagement
* Protection of human right and human might
* Influence on policies
* Righting the wrongs
Inks will be exhausted on the overleaf in subsequent paragraphs.
Nigerians have majorly been guilty of this factor. Pressure group as indigenous people of Biafra (IPOB) Niger Delta militants etc have earnestly gained interest in politics to protect the interest of their ethnic group. IPOB had threatened to bamboozle the peace of Nigeria if they are not given a jurisdictional autonomy as a sovereign state. This uprising was motivated from the believe that the Nigerian government had taken a sentimental stance to deprive them of the dividends of national politics. So they crave for self reliance and sovereignty simply because they want to protect the interest of their ethnic group(igbos)
On the other hand the Niger Delta which comprises of the oil producing states in south-east Nigeria which includes Abia,Rivers,Delta, Imo,Bayelsa and akwa ibom has stood firmly as the reservoir of Nigeria’s oil wealth. Unfortunately, the citizens of this area do not have strong influence in national government as a result, their opinions and views on the sharing of Nigeria’s oil wealth are often weak and unheard. The derivation principle which the central government practices over the years has failed to assuage their deep seated feeling of neglect and abuse. This has led to a coarse and militant political behavior on their part,as a means of getting their sentiments and frustrations across. Since the 1980’s the Niger Delta area has become hostile to the government, the oil companies and the citizens as the issue of the proper accommodation of the competing interests remain irreconcilable.
In 1994/95, the movement for the survival of ogoni people,MOSOP an ethnic militant organization aimed at protecting the environment and economic rights of the ogoni people against pollution and exploitation.
MOSOP involved in killing ogoni chiefs, oil management personnel etc all these actions were aimed at securing their ethnic interest.
RESENTMENT FOR MISMANAGEMENT
Resentment for political/economic mismanagement was the major motivating factor that influenced the military intervention in politics.
in Nigeria ‘s 2015 presidential elections. Mohammed Buhari was asked why he plotted a coup to overpower Shehu Shagari’s government. He claimed Shagari’s government was filled with corruption and mismanagement that what was why he employed the military to rescue the nation.
The military intervened in Nigerian politics to restore peace, justice,honesty and unity. Thus,addressing the northern leaders of thought in 1966 after the controversial coup. Hassan Katsina insisted:
” we know that only in unity can we render effective service to our people, to Africa and the world. We know that to achieve the lofty ideals we have set for ourselves we must first establish peace and stability…. Now it is our duty to resume our example of sacrifice and compromise and continue to show our belief in the principle of discussion, intolerance, in give and take,and compromise. These are the principles which can ensure unity in our diverse community. Our nation must be based on equity and fair play for all the sections of Nigeria….”
On maintenance of military perfection in politics Gen Aguiyi Ironsi was at pains to assure the country:
” it is the policy of the national military government to hold adequate and full consultation with the public before any major and fundamental changes affecting the constitution or their civic rights are introduced.
PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND HUMAN MIGHTS
Ngozi Chimamanda Adichie,onyeka owelle,Joke Silva Jacobs etc are human right activists against gender equality, sexual harassment of female teenagers and even genital mutilation and other human right degrading actions. Their inspiration or motivation to create such a movement against human right violations was triggered by the extreme respect they have for human right.
It is a popular saying that when we strengthen human right,we weaken human might.
Maintaining an open-minded stance it is legal for the law to accommodate any kind of sexual habit. Be you a gay,lesbian,bisexual or straight it has no concern with the law,the law has nothing to do with morality. Therefore several uprisings have been witnessed within global coverage by the gays,lesbians,bisexuals to put into law rights to protect their interest and liberty. It was observed that reason America refused Nigeria ammunition support in 2015 in her fight against boko haram was because Nigeria refused to sign the gay,lesbian, bisexual act into law.
This is a practical motivating factor for homosexuals activists in politics.
INFLUENCE OF POLICIES
Tacitly the reason we have most senators,honorable members in the house of assembly today is because they want to influence the government policies to their interest.
The national assembly has not been able yo pass successfully and implement petroleum industrial bill. Because it will work against the economy of most senators with oil factories and refineries abroad. It is bewildering that Nigeria does not have a functioning refinery, we extract crude and take it abroad for refining. This is caused by influence of legislative members. That was their motivating factor to go into party politics; to influence national policies.
“If the federal ministry or mining industry want to participate in the exploration and exploitation of solid mineral resources ,then the constitution should be amended to that effect”.
Prof Aja A. Aja
RIGHTING THE WRONGS
Prof Aja Akpuru Aja a renowned professor in the department of political science and also a member of the national institute for policy and strategic studies. Is one of the few scholars whose motivation into politics is centered on “righting the wrongs”. In a bid to ascertain this he noted :
” If Nigeria truly wants to fight corruption. They should amend section 308 of the 1999 constitution “
Prof Aja illuminated further that section 308 which creates an immunity clause for the president, vice president, governor and the deputy Governor to commit both civil and criminal offenses and not be penalized for it till their tenure of office expires this did not place them above or below the law but within the law. He has recently voiced out on the economic situation of Nigeria that Nigeria is not in an economic recession but in a retrogression. Recession lasts only 8-11 months.
Other factors had stood firmly as a motivating factor for political participation aside ideology. This has however posited the fact that idealism does not have the lone quest of national development but realism and its factors should be given a significant considerations as well.
However from the foregoing we have not only pointed out the motivating factor of political participation aside ideology but some remedies to actualize a better Nigeria had been exposed.
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